Marine Technology Abstracts

The Marine Technology Abstracts database was developed by BMT and IMarEST to provide a reference for over 125,000 technical articles, reports, books, conference and transaction papers and other material on all aspects of maritime technology

Your search results for Transactions on Maritime Science

Transportation management education - case of graduate program at SUNY Maritime College

1997 - Transportation management is a complex, interdisciplinary subject that crosses both the public and private business sectors. Any education programme dealing with the subject must provide up-to-date skills and a good understanding of the subject in order to encourage good decision-making skills. A definition of transportation management is examined and an education programme is discussed. A graduate programme at the SUNY Maritime College that leads to a Master of Science Degree in Transportation Management is reviewed.

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Reliability and availability of the vessel traffic management and information systems

2013 - This paper presents an approach to the reliability and availability of Vessel Traffic Management and Information Systems through the analysis of hardware, software and human reliability. The paper analyses the critical subsystems and modules on the basis of the reliability theory, in order to achieve and ensure the availability of systems, i.e. to increase the safety of maritime traffic and the protection of the sea and marine environment. The paper discusses some of the techniques and mechanisms of hardware and software redundancy, as well as the activities that result in increasing the reliability of man.

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Environmental and economic benefits of slow steaming

2013 - Notwithstanding the fact that maritime shipping is the most energy efficient mode of transportation for large quantities of freight, there are continues efforts to improve its performance. These efforts have become even more intensive since the beginning of global economic crisis. Slow steaming is one of the attempts to improve both environmental and economic performance of maritime shipping. The paper gives an overview of existing studies on slow steaming and lists other available and already applicable solutions.

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Problem of boil-off in LNG supply chain

2013 - This paper examines the problem of evaporation of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) occurring at different places in the LNG supply chain. Evaporation losses in the LNG supply chain are one of the key factors for LNG safety, technical and economic assessment. LNG is stored and transported in tanks as a cryogenic liquid, i.e. as a liquid at a temperature below its boiling point at near atmospheric pressure. Due to heat entering the cryogenic tank during storage and transportation, a part of the LNG in the tank continuously evaporates creating a gas called Boil-Off Gas (BOG), which changes the quality of LNG over time. The general methods of handling and utilization of the BOG at different points in the LNG supply chain are presented. Attention is given to the issue of LNG energy content transferred during loading and unloading of LNG tankers, as well as to the BOG generated by evaporation of the cargo during maritime transport.

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Structural modifications for improving the tribological properties of the cylinder unit in two-stroke slow speed marine diesel engines

2012 - Increasing the energy efficiency of marine propulsion systems is a priority in the shipping industry. Shipowners are aspiring to larger and more powerful diesel engines demanded from marine engine manufacturers to implement various technological modifications to increase the engine efficiency, extend the life of engine components, and thus prolong the regular overhauling period. One of the ways to meet these demands, among other things, is to improve the tribological characteristics of engine components. The aim of this paper is to present structural modification of the tribological system "cylinder liner - piston ring - piston" of large bore slow speed marine diesel engine to reduce friction problems in the mentioned system.

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Proposal of measures for increasing the safety level of inland navigation

2012 - Navigation along inland waterways was historically used only for the transportation of bulk cargo. However, in the last two centuries inland waterways have been used for transporting containers, general and liquid cargo. The density of navigation in the world waterways is considerable, especially because it is more profitable, when compared to other modes of transport. The increase of the density of navigation along inland waterways has also led to accidents such as collisions, stranding and pollution. The implementation of various measures relating to the safety of navigation along inland waterways would help to reduce such accidents. In this paper the authors present new measures aimed at the increase of traffic volume. It is expected that the implementation of new measures will enable optimal planning of navigation and better awareness of potential threats in the waterways.

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Methods of pollution removal after tanker "Erika" accident

2013 - The marine accident of the Maltese tanker ERIKA is the biggest environmental disaster ever to hit France. On 12th of December 1999, on the way from Dunkerque (France) to Livorno (Italy), ERIKA broke in two and sank near the French coast, spilling around 20.000 tons of heavy fuel oil into the sea. About 11.000 tons of dangerous cargo, trapped inside the sunken wreck, presented a danger to the environment. Severe weather conditions prevented any offshore clean-up operations. Oil trapped inside the wreckage was pumped out, while the on-shore clean-up operations lasted for another two years. This accident had a direct impact on the economy of affected regions and resulted in numerous lawsuits against the ship owners, charterers and classification societies. This paper aims to provide an overview of oil spill pollution clean-up methods and technologies after the ERIKA accident.

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Manoeuvring simulation methods applied to determine the shape and operational condition of new ports - Mielno Port case study

2014 - This paper presents a complex method of establishment of optimum design of sea ports with regard to navigational safety. Real-time simulation method was implemented in the presented study. The limited task real-time simulation model was created together with characteristic ship models and environment. The paper presents several stages of the research, such as the designing of the model, planning of simulation experiments and statistical analysis of results. The results are used as design guidelines for the small Polish sea port of Mielno which is currently under development.

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Vibro-acoustic diagnostics of rolling bearings in vessels

2014 - Rolling bearings for many years have formed part of many mechanisms of various machines. They are also found in vessels. Rolling bearings' failure leads to failures of entire subsystems. For this reason, it is recommended to use objective and non-invasive methods to assess the condition of key bearings having a significant impact on the reliability of operation. Tools of this type include vibro-acoustic diagnostics.

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Contribution to ECDIS reliability using Markov model

2014 - An Integrated Bridge System (IBS) contains a fully duplicated Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS). Although duplication should increase system reliability, reliability and availability are not improved. Proper ECDIS maintenance includes updating both: the information system and the provided chart system. This procedure, in practice, tends to decrease reliability and availability. A Markov ECDIS simulation model is given. A new design concept is presented and proposed. The entire ECDIS system is improved by adding a cold standby system preventing the occurrence of errors due to updating and upgrading of the system device.

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The worldwide tanker shipping market (2010-2020) information model

2015 - The aim of this paper is to provide the information model for the worldwide tanker shipping market 2010 - 2020. The evaluation and analysis of the relevant variables of the model and the resulting growth rates are used to describe the most important theoretical principles of the worldwide tanker shipping market over the observed period of time. The research produced direct growth rates of the variables on the index scale from 1 to 100: 1. Innovations in maritime shipping (37.5), 2. Global economy (25.0), 3. Shipbuilding (14.3). 4. Globalisation (12.5) and 5. Freight rates (12.5). It can be concluded that the direct growth rates of all model variables of the worldwide tanker shipping market 2010 - 2020 have realistic chances to be implemented. By 2020 it is expected that the demand on the tanker shipping market will increase more intensely than the demand in other trades.

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Shipboard ballast water treatment systems on seagoing ships

2016 - This review paper summarizes the legislative framework and the available technologies for ballast water treatment with regard to the approval process and relevant issues. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) sets the limits of organism concentration in ballast water allowed to be discharged into the sea. The 2004 International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments is the first international document that introduced obligatory ballast water management and control. Even though ballast water treatment systems are not 100 % effective, they significantly reduce the risk of spreading of invasive species through ballast water exchange. An increased manufacturer interest in the system's approval or development of new technologies is not expected in future because the procedure is time-consuming and expensive. The final choice of optimal ballast water treatment system depends on the ship owner or operator taking into account the price, type of the ship, whether it is a newbuilding or an existing ship, ballast system capacity and the seas where ships ply as well as harbours at which they call.

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Liquefied natural gas ship route planning model considering market trend change

2014 - The authors consider a new biannual liquefied natural gas (LNG) ship routing and scheduling problem and a stochastic extension under boil-off gas (BOG) uncertainty while serving geographically dispersed multiple customers using a fleet of heterogeneous vessels. They are motivated not only by contract trend changes to shorter ones but also by technological advances in LNG vessel design. The mutual coincidence of both transitions enables developing a new LNG shipping strategy to keep up with emerging market trend. The authors propose a deterministic LNG scheduling model formulated as a multiple vehicle routing problem (VRP). The model is then extended to consider BOG using a two-stage stochastic modelling approach in which BOG is a random variable. Since the VRP is typically a combinatorial optimisation problem, its stochastic extension is much harder to solve. In order to overcome this computational burden, a Monte Carlo sampling optimisation is used to reduce the number of scenarios in the stochastic model while ensuring good quality of solutions. The solutions are evaluated using expected value of perfect information (EVPI) and value of stochastic solution (VSS). The result shows that the proposed model yields more stable solutions than the deterministic model.

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Fault tree analysis in the reliability of heavy fuel oil supply

2014 - Marine systems are complex and through the analysis of their reliability it is necessary to observe the reliability of their subsystems and components. With regard to the fact that the reliability is functionally dependent on faults, for the purpose of this study special attention has been given to possible faults on the heavy fuel oil supply pump of a two-stroke marine diesel engine MAN B&W 5L90MC. A deductive approach to reliability analysis, i.e. fault tree analysis method (FTA), has been used. By the use of this method it is simpler to identify the system's weak link and it is shown that the method gives the basis for the ship's system reliability analysis. Based on FTA analysis this paper suggests system parameters that require continuous monitoring in order to achieve reliability. The results show the behaviour of the components in case of faults and this approach can help to create a plan of action in order to enforce timely corrective and preventive action and, accordingly, increase the rate of reliability of the entire ship's systems.

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Dual-fuel-electric propulsion machinery concept on LNG carriers

2014 - The heat transfer towards liquefied gas stored in tanks results in boil-off during cargo handling or voyage. The rate of the evaporated gas amounts to 0.13% per day during the voyage of a fully loaded ship. Steam turbines have been a dominant form of propulsion on liquefied natural gas - LNG carriers for over forty years. Until recently, the possibility of using boil-off gas as fuel for boilers has been the reason for installing steam plants as the only means of propulsion of LNG carriers. However, it has been proved that these plants are not sufficiently efficient due to adverse impacts on both emissions and the vessel's operating expenses. It has also been found out that dual-fuel-electric propulsion is the most effective alternative to steam. Shipping companies select electric propulsion primarily because it provides excellent manoeuvrability and increased availability, allows reduction of the machinery space and better arrangement of shipping capacity and, naturally, because of lower fuel costs. This paper discusses the newest technologies and the operation principle of the low-pressure four-stroke dual-fuel diesel engine, specifically the 12V50DF and 9L50DF types produced by Wartsila company, and the concept of the dual-fuel-electric propulsion for the new generation of LNG carriers.

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Transport costs affecting LNG delivery by Moss type carriers

2013 - The paper discusses the influence of transportation costs on the delivery of liquefied natural gas (LNG) by sea. The research part of the project was carried out by using a dedicated LNG Moss type carrier with the capacity of 205,000 m3 and by taking into account the price of the propulsion engine fuel, LNG, as one of the most important factors of the final cost of LNG transportation. The fluctuation of the final costs also depends on the price of construction of a new vessel, the vessel's design, sufficient number of the vessels required for transportation, and the amount of cargo to be shipped from a load port to the import terminal. The port of Murmansk, possibly one of Russia's largest LNG load terminals, was used as port of departure, i.e. port of load. The final destinations, i.e. import terminals, included the ports of Zeebrugge, South Hook, Cove Point, Chiba and Fujian. It should be noticed that this study involved two sailing routes, the Suez Canal and the North East Passage, taking into consideration the harsh weather conditions the vessels might encounter during navigation.

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Optimisation of ship propulsion diesel engine to fulfil the new requirements for exhaust emissions

2014 - Impacts of exhaust gas emissions on the environment and air pollution from ships have received considerable attention in the past few decades. Due to the characteristics of the combustion process, typical for large marine two-stroke low-speed engines, and the use of residual fossil fuels, the world's fleet emits into the atmosphere significant amount of pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrocarbons (HC), sulphur oxides (SOx) and carbon particles (PM). Impact assessment of the process of their formation, emitted amounts and the influence of emission are important factors for decision making in regulation development and also for engine designers who aim to improve low-speed two-stroke marine engines, for further tightening of regulations regarding limiting emissions. This paper consists of three parts: the first section describes the injection and combustion process in low speed two-stroke marine engines, the second part describes the formation of the exhaust gas emissions as a product of the combustion process and the third part, in which the known techniques to reduce harmful emissions that are currently used in low-speed two-stroke marine engines are described.

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